Competing interests?: Land use strategies for humans and wildlife in vulnerable ecosystems

The effects of urban land expansion on places with high conservation value

Chun-Wei
Huang
Kroon 319
12:50pm
The effects of urban land expansion on places with high conservation value will depend largely on the ability of governments to make policies that can effectively manage and shape urban growth. In places where urban growth can be effectively managed, policies and other interventions can minimize the negative impacts of urban expansion on conservation priorities. However, urban population growth and associated urban land expansion during the first half of the 21st century are expected to be highest in regions of the world where might have weak urban and land governance. As such, it is urgent to explore where may suffer from the twin challenge from urban threats and poor land governance on biodiversity conservation.

Restoration of tropical degraded landscapes though reforestation

Irene
Montes
Kroon 319
12:50pm
Restoration of tropical degraded landscapes though reforestation, agroforestry systems and enrichment plantings necessarily calls for the use of native tree species. Many native tropical tree species provide numerous goods known to and useful for the local population, as well as shelter and food for wildlife. Using such species, can offer important social, economic and ecological advantages, be more sustainable and less prone to catastrophic damage by pests and diseases. This research responds to the current demand for information about autecological characteristics, silvicultural management and long-term performance of native tree species to ensure success of restoration projects. The 'dinde' tree (Maclura tinctoria (L.) D. Don ex Steud) is a long-lived pioneer that can be found from Mexico to Argentina, in both humid and dry forests. The diverse uses and ecological attributes make the dinde a promising tree to be used in any kind of restoration project, and an ideal candidate for agroforestry combinations. Currently, however, little information exists regarding this species performance in reforestation projects or agroforestry systems and published data on this species growth patterns, and tree-soil relationships is almost non-existent. In this study, we measured and performed regressions analyses to determine the relationships between age, bole size, tree height, crown size and key soil fertility parameters of planted dinde trees in the foothills of the Colombian Andes. With this information, this study generated spacing guidelines and management recommendations for farmers and practitioners.

Rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to considerable changes

Wejun
Wang
Kroon 319
12:50pm
Rapid economic growth and urbanization have led to considerable changes in food consumption patterns in China. However, the environmental effects of these changes have not been clearly understood. Based on food consumption data from 1995 to 2012, this study forecasts three kinds of environmental effects resulting from future food consumption in China: land requirements, carbon emissions, and water usage. The results indicate that urban and rural households have significantly different food consumption patterns and corresponding environmental effects. The per capita arable land requirements, carbon emissions, and water usage from food consumption of urban households are all larger than those of rural households. Additionally, all three environmental effect indicators are projected to increase from 2012 to 2030 for both urban and rural households, while the increase is faster for urban households than rural households. The study concludes that the continuing rapid urbanization of China will lead to more food demand and larger environmental effects.

The cacao (Theobroma cacao) growing region of southern Bahia in Brazil

Katherine
Young
Kroon 319
12:50pm
The cacao (Theobroma cacao) growing region of southern Bahia in Brazil holds more endemic species and greater species richness than any other part of the Atlantic Forest'one of the most biodiverse forest in the world. However, overexploitation and urban and agricultural expansion over the past 45 years has destroyed up to 93% of the original forest cover. Since the 1960s, researchers have suggested biodiverse agroecological systems mimic native ecosystems by increasing species diversity, promoting complex vertical structures, reducing management intensity and inputs, and diversifying yields. Studies on the shade tree component of cabrucas have shown that these agroforestry systems have high structural and floristic diversity (including many endemic and endangered tree species) in comparison to other agricultural systems. However, little is understood about how these agroforests compare to native secondary forests in the same region. My study compared the results of a late successional secondary forest in the Atlantic Forest (+40 yrs since agricultural fallow) to trends in floristic composition and structure of all plants '5cm dbh in four late successional cabruca stands (+40 yrs). Results suggest that while cabrucas are greatly simplified in structure and floristic composition, cabrucas can be potentially managed for increased biodiversity by planting economically valuable species in available vertical gaps in the strata, facilitating the conservation of biological diversity and natural resources, while addressing economic pressures faced by local communities.