Title: ""Fired Up: Household energy perspectives from rural Indian women"" Household air pollution from 'traditional' biomass burning stoves has an enormous public health burden, causing one million Indian deaths annually, and is the leading risk factor for women and children. India has the largest number of people in the world without access to 'safe, modern, and clean' energy sources. Exposure to smoke from cooking fires is an everyday act of 'slow violence' faced by the world's most marginalized populations. Biomass stoves are associated with numerous other environmental and social harms ' deforestation, climate change, rural drudgery, and perpetuating gender inequity. India has a vast network of government, NGO, donor, and corporate actors who have worked for seventy years on 'transitioning' households away from 'traditional' to 'modern' technologies, with modest success. 'Traditional' stoves remain popular among users and continue to be used everyday. Using 15 months of multi-sited ethnographic research, I understand why households use biomass stoves, what rural Indian women think about the health, environmental, and social costs and benefits of biomass as an energy source, and what it means to them to adopt 'clean and modern' energy technologies. My results indicate that conventional understandings of the 'adoption gap' regarding new technologies are steeped in academic and policy biases. Devoid of local perspectives, many of these understandings of why households choose one technology or another are quite wrong. I present new and counterintuitive results based on a deep engagement with local communities in rural India, who are the targeted beneficiaries of energy development efforts. I use the critical lens of political ecology to analyze environmental, political, economic, epistemological and social processes at work around household air pollution and energy transitions.